O. A. Ibrahim, G. E. Jokthan, I. Mallam, R. O. Alao, L. A. Jinadu, C. M. Umego


This research was conducted to determine the age distribution of Red Sokoto Goats of 6 months and above according to coat type, hair type, tail shape, tassels, sex and haemoglobin type that may serve as indicators for production performance and determine the existing associations of haemoglobin types and body physical characteristics. A total of 321 Red Sokoto goats were used for the study and 213 of them were sampled for haemoglobin type. The population of Red Sokoto goats Hb types was studied in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequencies of observed morphological characteristics such as coat type, hair type, tail shape, tassels and their Hb types, age, sex were recorded. Four haemoglobin types were discovered, namely; HbAA, HbAB, HbBB and HbAC. Only two (2) animals sampled had the rare pre-adult haemoglobin type (HbAC). The distribution of all the parameters were determined using Descriptive Statistics and the Haemoglobin types were expressed as homozygous (HbAA and HbBB) and heterozygous (HbAB and HbAC); phenotypes with HbAC being a pre-adult form of Hb and were determined. The red sokoto goats within 8 months of age had the highest frequencies (24.61 %) while the least (3.12 %) was obtained in those that are within 48 months. The highest coat type, hair type and tail shape were found in Brown (B), Short-smooth (SS) and Curled up (CU) respectively. The Red Sokoto goats without tassels (308) were more than those with tassel (13). The 89.4% frequencies in female red sokoto goats were higher than those in male (10.6 %). In can be concluded that Hb type and other physical characteristics can serve as indicators for production. Also, variation in our goat herd could be drastically improved within a short time. Larger sample sizes could also come to ones’ aid when investigating traits or physical characteristics that are not so common such as tassels. Further work of this nature should be carried out on different breeds of goats and the results for each breed could then be compared with one another to find the trend in results.


Goat, Red Sokoto, Qualitative traits, Semi-arid and Haemoglobin type

Full Text:



African Farming Magazine (1996). Alain Charles Publishing Ltd., London March/April. Pp. 9-11.

Das, D. K., Sinha, R., Dattagupta, R. and Senapati, P. K. (2004). Association of haemoglobin types with some mensuration and reproductive characteristics in Garole Sheep. Pp 382-384. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 74(4):382-384.

Deza C., Petrez, G. T., Gardenal, C. N., Valrela, L., Villar, M., Rubiales, S. and Barrioglio, C. (2000). Protein polymorphism in native goats from central Argentina. Small Ruminant Research, 35(3):195-201.

FAO/World Bank (2001). Farming systems and poverty: Improving farmers’ livelihoods in a changing world. Washington, D.C.: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Bank.

Henkes, L. E., Weimer, T. A. and Moraes, J. C. F. (1994). Genetic, Markers and the Fertility Gene (Fec’) in a 3/4 Romney Marsh X 1/4 Merino Booroola Flock. Small Ruminant Research, 14:55-59.

Hoste, P. (1999). The creation of a dual purpose goat in Malaysia as a model case for collaborative research and development. In: Wilson, R.T. and Azab, M. (Eds) African Small Ruminant Research and Development. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Pp. 114-128.

Huisman T. H. S., Lewis, J. P., Blunt, M. H., Adams, H. R., Miller, A., Dozy, A. M. and Boyd, E. M. (1969). Haemoglobin C in new born sheep and goats; a possible explanation for its function and biosynthesis. Paediatric Research, 3:189-198.

Johnson, E.H., Nam, D. and Al-Busaidy, R. (2002). Observation of haemoglobin types in three breeds of Omani goats. Veterinary Research Communications, Netherlands, 26(5):353-359. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

NPC, (2006) National Population Commis-sion, Abuja, Nigeria. www.nigerianne-ws.com/census/census2006.htm (Accessed on 5th December, 2018).

Ogungbile, A. O., Tabo, R., VanDuiven-booden, N. and Debrah, S. K. (1998). Analysis of constraints to Agricultural Production in the Sudan Savanna Zone of Nigeria using multi-scale characterization. Wageningen Journal of life Sciences, Volume 46 No 1.

Osuhor C. U., Alawa, J. P. and Akpa, G. N. (2002). Research note: Manure production by goat grazing native pasture in Nigeria. Tropical Grasslands, 36:123-125.

Peacock, C. (1996). Improving Goat Production in the Tropics- A Manual for Development Workers. Oxfam Publishers, FARM Africa.

Rim (1992). Nigerian livestock resources. Four volume report to the Federal Government of Nigeria by Resource Inventory and Management Limited: I. Executive summary and atlas; II. National synthesis; III. State reports; IV. Urban reports and commercially managed livestock survey report.

Salako, A. E., Ijadunola, T. O. and Agbesola, Y. O. (2007). Haemoglobin polymo-rphism in Nigerian indigenous small ruminant populations-preliminary investigation. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(22):2636-2638.

SAS (2004). SAS/STAT User’s Guide version 8.0 edition: Statistics, SAS Institute Incorporation, Cary, NC., USA.

Tella, M. A., Taiwo, V. O., Agbede, S. A. and Alonge, O. D. (2000). The influence of hemoglobin types of the incidence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in West African Dwarf and Yankasa sheep. Tropical Veterinary Journal, 18:121-127.

Tewe, O. O. (1997) Post Harvest Technologies from Research Institutes and Universities in Nigeria. Compiled by Technological Vision organization (TECHNOVISOR) for the United Nations Development Programme. Oyo State June, Ibadan. Pg.72.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Animal Production Research