I. I. Madziga, C. B. I. Alawa


A 15-week experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mineral supplementation on plasma mineral concentration and performance of grazing Bunaji heifers.  Twenty heifers were allotted to five treatments as follows: 1. Common salt, 2. Potash (Kanwa), 3. Phosphorus, 4. common slat + potash + phosphorus, 5. Control.  Blood was collected twice during the period of the study for mineral analysis.  Live weight changes were taken fortnightly and the potash used was analyzed for mineral composition. Differences were not observed in plasma mineral concentration among the treatments.  There were also no observed differences in average daily gains between the treatments.  However, when the period under study was divided into phases, it was found that differences (p<0.05) existed in average daily gains. The conclusion from this study indicates that daily weight gains vary over the wet season with best gains occurring during the earlier parts of the wet season, therefore supplementation should be maximized at this period.  For effective mineral supplementation of grazing animals, the mineral composition of pastures, the effect of soil ingestion and gastro- intestinal parasitism should be taken in to consideration.

Full Text:



Adamu, A.M. (1990) Wet season Phosphorus and nitrogen supplements for steers and heifers grazing native pasture. NAPRI Seminar series.

Adamu, A.M. Eduvie, L.O. Ehoche, O.W. Lufadeju, E.A Olorunju, S.A.S, Okaiyeto, P.O., Hena, S.W., Tanko R.J., Adewuyi, A.A. Magaji, S.O. (1991). Effects of nitrogen, energy and mineral supplementation on growth and reproduction performance of Bunaji heifers grazing native pastures and crop residues. Proceeding of a workshop on Forage Production and Utilization in Nigeria. Adamu, A.M., Mani, R.I., Osinowo,

O.A., Adeoye, K.B.and Ajeleye, E.O. (Eds), NLPD, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Adamu A.M.., Eduvie, L.O. Olorunju, S.A.S., Ehoche, O.W., Lufadeju, E.A. Tanko, R.A. and Mohammed, A.K. (1993). Effect of mineral and protein supplementation on the performance of heifers grazing crop residues and range paper presented at a Workshop on Livestock Systems Research, 11-16th July, Zaria, Nigeria.

Agishi, E.C. (1979). The performance of young heifers grazing buffel – grass-verano stylo pastures. Annual Report, NAPRI Shika. Pp. 90-91.

Ahola, J.K., Baker, D.S., Burns, P.D., Mortimer, R.R., Enns, R.M., Whittier, J.C., Garry, T.W. and Engle T.E. (2004). Effect of zinc and manganese supplementation and sources on reproduction, mineral status and performance of grazing beef cattle over two-year period. Journal of Animal Science: 82:2375-2383

Ammerman. C.B. and Goodrich, R.D. (1983). Advances in mineral nutrition in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 57:519-533

Bayer, W. and Otchere, E.O. (1982). Grazing time of White Fulani cattle kept by settled pastoralists on Kaduna plains: In: Beef Production in Nigeria (Osinowo, O.A., Ikhatua, U. J., and Ehoche., O.W. (Eds). Proceedings of National Conference on Beef Production, Kaduna, Nigeria. Pp. 611 – 612.

Bishop I.H.K. (1965). Feeding phosphates to cattle. South African Dept. of Agric. Technical Services. Bulletin No. 365.

Burnett, R.H. (2017). Supplemental Trace Minerals (Zn Cu and Mn) as Sulfates or Hydroxyl Trace Mineral Sources for Beef Heifers. Master Thesis, University of Arkansas Butterworth M.H. (1985) Beef cattle nutrition and tropical pasture Longman, London.

Call, J.W., Butcher, J.E. Blake, J.T., Smart, R.A. and Shupe, J.C. (1978). Phosphorus influence on growth and reproduction of beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 47:216-225.

Davies, J.G. Scott, A.E and Kennedy, J.F. (1938). The yield and composition of a Mitchell grass pasture for a period of twelve months. Journal of the Council for Science and Industrial Research Australia, 11:127-139.

de Leeuw P.N. (1992). Growth performance of immature cattle grazing in West African range lands A review. Paper presented at a Training Course on Ruminant Nutrition and Feeding systems, 16-23 April. ILCA Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

de Leeuw, P.N. and Agishi, E.C (1978). A partial economic analysis of grazing systems in the savannah zone. 8th Livestock Conference Samaru, Sept. 1978.

de Leeuw, P.N. and Brinckman, W.L. (1974). Pasture and rangeland improvement in the Northern Guinea and Suda zones of Nigeria. In: J.K. Losli, V.A. Oyenuga and B.M. Babatunde (Eds.) Animal Production in the Tropics, Heinemann, Ibadan. Pp.124-136

de Sousa, J.C. (1978). Interrelationships among mineral levels in soil, forage and animal tissues on ranches in northern Matto Grasso Brazil. PhD Thesis. University of Florida.

Devendra. C. (1986). Leucaena forage supplementation of ruminant diets in the Asean region. In Rice straw and related feeds in ruminant ration. Ibrahim, M.N.M. and Schiere, J.B. (Eds.) Proceedings of an International Workshop. March. Kandy, Sri-Lanka Department of Tropical Animal. Production, Agricultural University Wageningen The Netherlands. 225-237.

Grace, N.D., and Healy, W.B. (1974). Effect of ingestion of soil on feacal losses and retention of Mg. Ca, P, K. and Na in sheep fed two levels of dried grass. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17: 73-78.

Greene, L.W. (2000). Designing mineral supplementation of forage for beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 77:1-9.

Haggar, R.J. and Ahmed, M.B. (1970). Seasonal production of Andropogon gayanus. II: Seasonal changes in digestibility and feed intake. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge, 75: 369-373.

Haggar, R.J. and Ahmed, M.B. (1971). Seasonal changes of Andropogon gayanus III: Changes in crude protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility of leaf and stem portions. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge, 77: 47-52.

Healy, W.B. (1973a). Nutritional aspects of soil ingestion by grazing animals: In Chemistry and biochemistry of herbage G.W. Bulter and R.W. Bailey (Eds.) London, Academic Press. 1:567-588.

Ikwuegbu, O.A. Gbodi, T.A. and Obgonnah, G.A (1985). Effects of Local (Kanwa) and proprietary mineral salt licks in the ration of milk cows. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 14(1): 66-69.

Kapu, A.M. (1975). The native forage of Northern Nigeria. Nitrogen and mineral composition of grass have from different savannah zones. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 2:235-246.

Kegley, E.B and Spears, J.W. (1994). Bioavailability of feed grade copper source for shipping stressed beef cattle. Professional Animal Science, 28:313-318.

Little, D.A. (1980). Observations on the phosphorus requirement of cattle for growth. Research in Veterinary Science, 28: 250-260.

Little, D.A. (1981). Utilization of minerals. In: Nutritional limits to animal production from pastures (J.B. Hacker Ed.,) Proceedings, Australia. August 24-28th 1981. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, U.K., P. 259.

McDowell, L.R. (1985). Nutrition of grazing Ruminant in Warm Climates, 443p. Academic Press. New York.

McDowell, L.R. and Conrad, J.H. (1977) Trace mineral nutrition in Latin America. World Animal Review: 24: 24-33.

McDowell, L.R., Conrad, J.H. and Glen Hembry, F. (1993). Minerals for grazing ruminants in tropical countries 2nd Ed. Bull of Animal Science Department Centre for Tropical Agriculture, University of Florida. U.S.A.

NASEM (2016). Nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Ninth Revised Edition, NationalAcademy Press, Washington, D.C

Okeagu, M.U. (1981). Evaluation of nitrogen fertilized signal grass (Bracharia decumbens) pastures under cattle grazing. M.Sc. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Otchere, E.O. (1984). Traditional cattle production in sub humid zone of Nigeria. In: Proceeding of the Second ILCA/NAPRI Symposium, Kaduna, Nigeria, Von Kaufmann, S. Chater and R. Blench (Eds), ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Robinson, D.W. and Sageman, R. (1967). The nutritive value of some pasture species in North-Western Australia during the late dry season. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 7: 533-539.

Shaw, N.H. (1978). Superphosphate and stocking rate effects on a native pasture overs own with stylosanthes humilis in central coastal Queensland. I. Pasture production. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 18: 788-799.

Whiteside P.J. (1976). Pye Unicam Atomic Absorption Data Book. 2nd Ed. Pye Unicam Ltd Cambridge.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Animal Production Research