C. U. Idachaba, S. Duru, J. J. Omage, P. A. Onimisi, I. Abdullahi


The effect of acidifier (Fysal®) on phytate utilization, mineral digestibility and bone density of broiler finisher chickens was investigated. Three hundred broiler finisher chickens were assigned to five treatment groups each replicated thrice with twenty chickens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chickens in the control treatment were fed basal diet while those in other treatments were fed diets supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% levels of acidifier (Fysal®). At the end of the 56-day feeding period, nine chickens per treatment were selected for mineral digestibility trial and later processed to remove the left tibia bone for determination of bone density. Supplementation of 0.3% organic acid was found to liberate minerals bound by phytate and significantly (P<0.05) increased apparent digestibility of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by 28.57, 27.77, 13.89% respectively. It also significantly (P<0.05) increased bone density, tibia ash, calcium and phosphorus by 11.69, 11.58, 14.44 and 14.89% respectively. The study conclude that the use of acidifiers at 3kg per ton/feed is beneficial in broiler production for bone mineralization and efficient utilization of feed nutrients.


Acidifier, Organic acid, Phytate, Mineral

Full Text:



Abdoulaye, C., Brou, K. and Jie, C. (2011). Phytic acid in cereal grains: Structure, Healthy or Harmful ways to reduce phytic acid in cereal grains and their effect on nutritional quality. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology, 1:1-22.

Abdullahi, I. (2012). Nutritive value of differently processed mango seed kernel (Local Variety (Kanbiri) and mixed Samples) meal in broiler diets. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Animal Science, A.B.U. Zaria.

Abeke, F.O. (2005). Evaluation of the nutritive value of lablab purpureus beans in replacing groundnut cake in poultry diets. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Animal Science, ABU, Zaria.

Ahmad, T., Rasool, S., Sarwar, M., Haq, A. and Zia-ul,H. (2000). Effect of microbial phytase from a fungusAspergillus niger on bioavailability of phosphorus and calcium in broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 83: 103-114.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1994). Official Methods of Analysis.16th ed. Association of Analytical Chem. Washington, DC.

Boling, S. D., Douglas, M. W., Snow, J. L., Parsons, C. M. and Baker, D. H. (2000a). Citric acid does not improve phosphorus utilization in laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science, 79:1335–1337.

Boling, S. D., Webel, D. M., Mavromichalis, I., Parsons, C. M. and Baker, D. H. (2000b). The effects of citric acid on phytate phosphorus utilization in young chicks and pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 78:682–689.

IAR (2012). Institute for Agricultural Research, A.B.U. Zaria, Meteorological Station Data.

Idachaba, C. U. (2012). Effect of graded levels of stone grit with or without enzyme supplementation on utilization of rice offal based diets by broiler chickens. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Animal Science, A.B.U. Zaria

Idachaba, C. U. (2017). Effect of Different Organic Acids with and without Phytase Supplementation on Performance and Phytate Utilization by Broiler Chickens. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Julian, R. J. (2005). Production and growth related disorders and other metabolic diseases of poultry. A review. Veterinary Journal, 169: 350–369.

Leeson, S., Namkung, H., Cottrill, M. and Forsberg,C.W. (2000). Efficacy of new bacterial phytase in poultry diets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 80: 527-528.

Liem, G. M., Pesti and Edwards, H. M. Jr. (2007). The Effect of Several Organic Acids on Phytate Phosphorus Hydrolysis in Broiler Chicks. Poultry science, 87(4): 689-693.

Maenz, D. D., Engele-Schaan, C. M., Newkirk, R. W. and Classen, H. L. (1999). The effect of minerals and mineral chelators on the formation of phytase-resistant and phytase-susceptible forms of phytic acid in solution and in a slurry of canola meal. Animal Feed Scienceand Technology, 81:177–192.

NRC (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry (9th Ed.).National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Orban, J. I., Roland, D. A., Bryant, M. M. and Williams, J. C. (1993). Factors influencing bone mineral content, density, breaking strength, and ash as response criteria for assessing bone qualityin chickens. Poultry Science, 72:437–446.

Park, K. W., Rhee, A. R., Um, J. S. and Paik, I. K. (2009). Effect of dietary available phosphorus and organic acids on the performance and egg quality of laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 18:598–604.

Rafacz-Livingston, K.A., Martinez-Amezcua, C., Parsons, C.M., Baker, D.H. and Snow, J. (2005). Citric Acid Improves Phytate Phosphorus Utilization in Crossbred and Commercial Broiler Chicks. Poultry Science, 84:1370–1375.

Rath, N., Huff, G., Huff, W. and Balog, J. (2000). Factors regulating bone maturity and strength in poultry. Poultry Science,79: 1024-1032.

Reisenfeld, A. (1972). Metatarsal robusticity in bi-pedal rats. American Journal of Physiology and Anthropology, 40: 229–234.

Salgado-Tránsito, L., Del Río-García, J. C., Arjona-Román, J. L., Moreno-Martínez, E. and Méndez-Albores, A. (2011). Effect of citric acid supplemented diets on aflatoxin degradation, growth performance and serum parameters in broiler chickens. Archivos De Medicina Veterinaria, 43:215-222.

SAS (1993). Statistical Analysis System, Computer Software, Version 9: Statistics, SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC27513, NC27513, USA.

Sheikh, A., Tufail, B., Gulam, A. B., Masood, S. M. and Manzoor, R. (2010). Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids on Performance, Intestinal Histomorphology, and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken. Veterinary Medicine International, 10:1-7.

Snow, J.L., Baker, D.H. and Parsons, C.M. (2004). Phytase, citric acid, and 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol improve phytate phosphorus utilization in chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science, 83:1187–1192.

Thomas, D.V. and Ravindran, V. (2010). Mineral Retention in Young Broiler Chicks Fed Diets Based on Wheat, Sorghum or Maize. Asian-Australian Journal Animal Science, 23(1): 68 – 73.

Woyengo, T.A. and Nyachoti, C.M.(2013). Review: Supplementation of phytase and carbohydrases to diets for poultry. Canadian Journal of Animal Science,91:177–192.

Youn, B.S., Nam, K.T., Chang, K.M., Hwang, S.G. and Choe, I. S. (2005). Effects of wood vinegar addition for meat quality improvement of old layer. Korean Journal of Poultry Science, 32:101–106.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Animal Production Research