I. Bature, B. M. Shehu, P. P. Barje


The aim of the study was to determine how some serum biochemical parameters of donkeys vary with age, sex and location under tropical condition. Serum biochemical parameters were collected randomly from blood samples of 125 donkeys across three states in Northwestern Nigeria. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein using syringe and needle, stored in ice parked container, centrifuged and analyzed at pathology laboratory of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Zaria. Results obtained indicate that glucose, total serum protein, potassium, creatinine and uric acid differed significantly (P < 0.05) between male and female donkeys. There were significant difference (P < 0.05) between young, adult and old donkeys for glucose, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, sodium, potassium, hydrocarbonate, urea, creatinine and uric acid. Location also had effect on ALT, ALP, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, hydrocarbonate, urea, creatinine, calcium and uric acid. From the results of this study it can be concluded that serum biochemical parameters varied according to age, sex and location. Further researches should be conducted across geopolitical zones of Nigeria.


Serum, Biochemical, Age, Sex, Location

Full Text:



Ademosum, A. (1994). Constraints and Prospects in small ruminant research and developments in Africa.Small Ruminant Research Developments in Africa.pp.1-5.

Agenas, S., Heath, M. F., Nixon, R. M., Wilkinson, J. M. and Phillips, C. C. (2006). Indicators of under-nutrition in animal.Animal Welfare, 15, 149-160.

Al Shafei, N. K., Ahmed, S. M. and Ibrahim, A. M. (2015).Some Sero-biochemical Reference Values of Working Donkeys (Equusasinus) from the Sudan. Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry Journal, 4(4), 1–3.

AL-Busadah, K.A. and Homeida, A.M. (2005).Some Physical Variables, Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Hassawi Ass.Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences), 6(1), 145-152.

Allain, C. C., Poon, L. S., Chan, C. S. G., Richmond, W. and Fu, P. C. (1974).Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol.Clinical Chemistry, 20: 470-475.

Ambrose, R. T., Ketchum, D. F. and Smith, J. W. (1983). Creatinine determined by “High Performance” Liquid Chromatography. Clinical Chemistry, 29, 256-259.

Annita, A. M., Carmen Z.P., Toledo, A.F., Sabes, J.A. and Luiz C.M. (2016). Serum protein fractions, haematological and biochemical variables of the Pêga donkey (Equusasinus) breed in the first year of age. VeterinarskiArhiv,86(3), 335-349.

Blench, R. M., De Jode, A. and Gherzi, E. (2004). Donkeys in Nigeria: history, distribution and productivity. In: Starkey, P. and Fielding, D. (Eds) Donkeys, people and development. A resource book of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). CTA, Netherlands, Pp.210-219.

Charles, M. H. (2007).Internal and External Parasites. In: Charles, M. H. and Margi, S. (Eds), Laboratory procedures for veterinary technicians (5th edition). Mosby Elsevier Incorporation, St Louis Missouri, U.S.A. Pp. 187 – 252.

Crane, M. (1997). Medical aspect of equines. In: Crane, M. (Ed) The professional handbook of the donkey. 3rd Edition. Book limited, London, 19-35.

Doumas, B. T. and Biggs, H. G. (1972).Determination of serum albumin.Standard Method of Clinical Chemistry, 7, 175 – 188.

Doumas, B. T. and Biggs, H. G. (1972). Determination of serum albumin.Standard Method of Clinical Chemistry, 7: 175-188.

Etana, M., Endeabu, B., Jenberie, S. and Negussie, H. (2011).Determination of reference physiological values for working donkeys of Ethiopia.Ethiopian Journal of Veterinary Science, 15 (1), 79 – 86.

French, J.M. and Patrick, V.H. (1995). Reference values for physiological and biochemical parameters in domestic donkey (Equusasinus). Equine Veterinary Journal, 7(1), 33 – 35.

Girardi, A.M., Marques, L.C., de Toledo, C.Z.P., Barbosa, J.C., Maldonado, Jr.W., Jorge, R.L.N. and da Silva, N.C.A. (2013). Biochemical profile of the Pega donkey (Equusasinus) breed: influence of age and sex. Journal of comparative clinical pathology,10, 71 – 84.

Hassan, M. R., Steenstra, F. A. and Udo, H. M. J. (2013).Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in Northwest Nigeria.African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(48), 6202 – 6212.

Jordana, J., Folch, P. and Cuenca, R. (1998). Clinical biochemical parameters of the endangered Catalonian donkey breed: normal values and the influence of sex, age, and management practices effect. Research in Veterinary Science, 64, 7 – 10.

Keneko J.J. (1989). Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals.4th ed. San Diego, Academic Press Inc. Chapters 6 and 18, and Appendix VII.

Keneko, J. J., Harvey, J.W. and Bruss, M. L. (1997).Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, 5th edition, Academic Press, San-Diego, London, Boston, New York, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto.

Laus, F., Spaterna, A., Faillace, V., Paggi, E., Serri, E., Vullo, C., Cerquetella, M. and Tesei, B. (2015).Reference values for haematological and biochemical parameters of mixedbreed donkeys (Equusasinus).Wulfenia journal,22 (1), 294 – 304.

Lindsay, D. B., Hunter, R. A., Gazzola, C., Spiers, W. G. and Sillence, M. N. (1993). Energy and growth.Australian Journal of Agricultural Resouces, 44, 875 – 889.

Mapekula, M., Mapiye, C. and Chimonyo, M. (2011).Changes in metabolites concentration in Nguni and crossbred calves on natural pasture.Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 24(11), 1569 – 1576.

Mori, E., Fernandes, W.R., Mirandola, R.M.S., Kubo, G., Ferreira, R.R., Oliveira, J.V. and Gacek, F. (2003). Reference values on serum biochemical parameters of Brazilian donkey (Equusasinus) breed. Journal Equine Veterinary Science, 23(8), 358 – 264.

Mori,E., Mirandola, R.M.S., Ferreira, R.R., Oliveira, J.V., Gacek, F. and Fernandes, W.R. (2004). Reference values on haematologic parameters of the Brazilian donkey (Equusasinus) breed. Journal Equine Veterinary Science, 24(7), 271-276.

Ndlovu, L.R., Bwakura, T. and Topps, J.H. (2000). The role of donkeys in integrated crop-livestock systems in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe.(pp. 190-193). In: Starkey, P. and Fielding, D. (Eds), Donkeys, people and development.A resource book of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp244. ISBN 92-9081-219-2.

Padalino, B., Rubino, G., Centoducati, P andPetazzi, F. (2007). Training versus overtraining: Evaluation of Two Protocols. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 27 (1): 28-31.

Pambu-Gollah, R., Cronje, P. B. and Casey, N. H. (2000).An evaluation of the use of blood metabolite concentrations as indicators of nutritional status in free-ranging indigenous goats.South African Journal of Animal Science, 30, 115 – 120.

Pearson, R. A., Nengomasha, E. and Krecek, R. (1999).The challenges in using donkeys for work in Africa.Starkey and Koumbutho Press, 326.

Sampson, E. J., Baird, M. A., Burtis, C. A., Smith, E. M., Witte, D. L. and Bayse, D. D. (1980). Coupled-enzyme equilibrium method for measuring urea in serum: optimization and evaluation of the AACC study group on urea candidate reference method. Clinical Chemistry, 26, 816 – 826.

SAS (2008).Statistical Analysis System User’s guide.SAS Institute Inc; Cary, N.C. 27513, USA.

Sgorbini, M., Bonelli, F., Rota, A., Baragli, P., Marchetti, V. and Corazza, M. (2013).Haematology and Clinical Chemistry in Amiata Donkey Foals from Birth to 2 Months of Age.Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 33, 35-39.

Simenew, K., Gezahegne, M., Getachew, M., Wondjefraw, M., Alemayehu, L. and Eyob, L. (2011).Reference value of clinically important physiological, haematological and serum biochemical parameters of apparently health working Equids of Ethopia.Global Veterinaria, 7(1), 1 – 6.

Sow, A., Kalandi, K.M., Ndiaye, N.P., Bathily, A. and Sawadogo, G.J. (2012). Clinical biochemical parameters of Burkinabese local donkeys’ breeds.International Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, 2, 84 – 89.

Stanišić, L., Dimitrijević, V., Simeunović, P., Lakić, N., Radović, I., Ivanković A., Stevanović J. and Stanimirović, Z. (2015). Morphological, biochemical and haematological characterization of endangered Balkan donkey breed. ActaVeterinaria-Beograd, 65(1), 125 – 136.

Starkey, P. and Starkey, M. (2004).Regional and world trends in donkey populations. In: Starkey, P. and Fielding, D. (Eds) Donkeys, People and Development. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp. 10 – 21.

Trinder, P. (1969). Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen receptor.Animal Clinical Biochemistry, 6, 24.

Veronesi, M.C., Gloria, A., Panzani, S., Sfirro, M.P., Carluccio, A. and Contri, A. (2014). Blood analysis in newborn donkeys: haematology, biochemistry, and blood gases analysis. Theriogenology, 82, 294 – 303.

Weiser, G. (2002a). Sample collection, processing and analysis of laboratory service option. In: Mary, A.T., Glade, W., Robin, W.A. and Terry, W.C (eds.).Veterinary Haematology and Clinical Chemistry (2nd edition). Wiley-Black-Well, U.K., Pp. 3–33.

Wettemann, R. P., Lents, C. A., Ciccioli, N. H., White, F. J. and Rubio, I. (2003). Nutritional and suckling mediated an ovulation in beef cows. Journal of Animal Science, 81(2), 48–59.

Yilma, J., Feseha, G., Svendsen, E. and Muhammad, A. (1997).Health problem of working donkeys in Debra Zeit and Menegesha Region of Ethipia. In: Starkey, P. and Fielding, D. (eds.). Donkeys, People and Development.A Resource Book of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, 151 – 155.

Zinkl,J.G., Mae, D., Merida, P.G., Farver, T.B. and Humble, J.A. (1990). Reference ranges and the influence of age and sex on hematologic and serum biochemical values in donkeys (Equus asinus). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 51(3), 408 – 413.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Animal Production Research