EFFECTS OF GRADED LEVELS OF MOLASSES, SALT AND UREA ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF RICE STRAW SILAGE

S. L. Abdurrahaman, S. A. Abubakar, F. A. Hamza, A. M. Umar, I. R. Muhammad

Abstract


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the ensiling quality of Rice straw (RS) using graded levels of Molasses, Salt and Urea as additives. Rice straw collected from the University Farm after harvest in 2016 growing season was chopped to 2 – 3 cm sizes, mixed with the three additives at 5g, 7.5g and 10g each. Nine treatments; T1 (RS + 5g Molasses), T2 (RS + 7.5g Molasses), T3 (RS + 10g Molasses), T4 (RS + 5g Salt), T5 (RS + 7.5g Salt), T6 (RS + 10g Salt), T7 (RS + 5g Urea), T8 (RS + 7.5g Urea) and T9 (RS + 10g Urea) were replicated three times and then ensiled for 21 days. The results revealed significant (p<0.05) difference in all parameters evaluated. The result on pH showed a linear increase with the exception of T3 (RS + 10g molasses). The pH varied from 4.04 in T3 (RS + 10g Molasses) to 7.02 in T9 (RS + 10g Urea).  In terms of physiochemical characteristics T1 (RS + 5g molasses), T2 (RS + 7.5g molasses) and T3 (RS + 10g molasses) resulted in better quality silage with very sweet to sweet aroma, yellowish green to pale yellow colour, high  DM (90.76 - 93.35%),  OM (89.55  - 92.05%),  CF (29.06  - 37.32%) and  NFE (53.52  - 62.71%), with moderate %CP (6.16  - 6.56%), %EE (0.53  - 1.77%), %NDF (53.52  - 62.71%) and ash (1.21  - 1.30%) content. T4 (RS + 5g Salt), T5 (RS + 7.5g Salt) and T6 (RS + 10g Salt) results in silage with putrid to pleasant aroma, light to dark brown colour low CP (5.47 - 5.61%), %DM (88.60 - 91.93%) and Ash (0.81 - 1.85%) contents. While T7 (RS + 5g Urea), T8 (RS + 7.5g Urea) and T9 (RS + 10g Urea) had significantly (p<0.05) highest crude protein (9.40 - 14.18%), Ash (1.50 - 1.88%) and metabolisable energy (2143.54 - 2478.98 kcal/kg) among the treatments evaluated. Addition of additives to rice straw silage improved the silage physiochemical qualities and farmers should add molasses or urea at 7.5% for better silage production.

Keywords


Molasses, Salt, Urea, Physiochemical, Ensiling Quality and Rice straw

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdurrahaman, S. L. (2017). Evaluation of nutritive value and utilization of Kargo pods (Piliostigma reticulatum DC. Hochst) by small ruminants in semi-arid NigeriaPhD. Thesis, submitted to Department of Animal Science, Bayero University Kano

AOAC.(1999). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D.C: William Tryd Press Richmond Virginia. Pp. 214-230.

Alikhali, M., Asadi, A., Qorbani, Q. and Sadeqi, N. (2005).The effect of molasses, urea and bacteria inoculation on the chemical component and dry matter degradability of sunflower silos.Agriculture Science and Techniques and Natural Resources Magazine, Issue 3, p11.

Akinwande, V. O., Mako, A. A. and Babayemi, O. J. (2011). Silage quality, voluntary feed intake (VFI), nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in West African Dwarf sheep fed ensiled Water Hyacinth (WH) in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 36th Annual conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production (NSAP), University of Abuja.Pp 509 – 512.

Baba, M., Uba, T. and Halim, A. R. (2010). Nutritive value of Kyasuwa hay (Pennisetumpedicellatum) ensiled with poultry litter at varying proportions. Research Journal of Animal Science, 4(5):117 – 120.

Babayemi, O. J., Ifut, O. J., Inyang, U. A. and Isaac, L. J. (2010). Quality and chemical composition of cassava waste ensiled with Albizasaman pods. Agricultural Journal 5(3): 225 – 228.

Cai, Y. M. (2006). Development of lactic acid bacteria inoculant for whole crop rice silage in Japan In: International Symposium on Production and Utilization of Whole Crop Rice for Feed, Busan, Korea. pp. 85-89.

Han, L. J., Yan, Q. J. and Liu, X. Y. (2002).The resource of crops straw and their current situation of utilization in China.Journal of Agricultural Engineering (in Chinese) 18:87-91.

JARDA, (2012).Jigawa State Agriculture and Rural Development Authority Metrological Station Report: Temperature and Rainfall Record Book and Management. Pp. 10-12.

Kim, S., Kaplan, L. A. and Hatcher, P. G. (2006). Biodegradable dissolved organic matter in temperate and a tropical stream determined from ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Limnology and Oceanography, 51:1054-1063.

Kung, L. and Shaver, R. (2002).Interpretation and use of silage fermentation analysis reports. Focus on Forage Vol. 3. Number 13.University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Leterme, P., Thewis, A. and Culot, M. (1992).Supplementation of pressed sugar-beet pulp silage with molasses and urea, laying hen excreta or soybean meal in ruminant nutrition. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 39: 209 – 225.

Mciteka, H. (2008). Fermentation characteristics and Nutritional value of opuntiaficus-indica Var. FusicaulisCladode Silage, MSC Thesis, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, RSA.

Muhammad, I. R., Baba, M., Mustapha, A., Ahmed, M. Y. and Abdurrahman, L. S. (2008).Use of Legumes in the Improvement of Silage Quality of Columbus Grass (Sorghum alumum).Research Journal of Animal Science, 2 (4) 109-112.

Oduguwa, B. O., Jolaosho, A. O. and Ayankoso, M. T. (2007).Effects of Ensiling on the Physical Properties, Chemical Composition and Mineral Contents of Guinea Grass and Cassava Tops Silage.Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 34 (1): 100 –106

Oladosu M. Y., Rafii M. Y., Abdullah N., Magaji U., Hussin G., Ramli, A. and Miah G. (2016). Fermentation quality and additives: A case of rice straw silage. BioMed Research International. Volume 2016:Pp 14.

Pauzenga, U. (1985). Feeding parent stock. Zoo tecnica International. December 1985 Pp 22-25.

SAS, (2013).Institute Inc. SAS/STAT User’s guide, 7.03 Edition, Gray NC. USA.

Sarnklong, C., Coneja, J. W., Pellikaan, W. and Hendriks, W. H. (2010). Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review. Asian Australia.Journal of Animal Science. 23: Pp 680-692.

Snyman, L, D., H.J Van der Merwe, and H.J Van Schalkwyk (1990).Effect of formalin preservation on the fermentation characteristics, chemical composition and protein properties of maize silage.South African Journal of Animal Science. 20:118-123.

Vadiveloo, J. (2000). Nutritional properties of the leaf and stem of rice straw.Animal Feed Science Technology. 83:57-65.

Wattiaux, M. (2000).Introduction to silage making.The Babcock Institute University of Wisconsin.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Animal Production Research