O. A. Ogunwole, O. O. Babatunde, R. A. Faboyede, B. S. Adedeji, F. O. Jemiseye


Effect of supplementing groundnut cake (GNC) based-diets with L-lysine and DL-methionine on calcium and phosphorus retention in broiler chickens was evaluated in this study. In a completely randomized design, one-day-old Arbor Acre chicks (n=168) were randomly allotted to seven treatments each in triplicate of eight birds per replicate. Control birds (T1) were fed GNC based-diets without any supplementation while those on T2 and T3 had 0.2 and 0.4 % L-lysine, respectively. Birds on T4 and T5 had 0.2 and 0.4 % DL-methionine while diets of birds on T6 and T7 were supplemented with 0.2% L-lysine and 0.2% DL-methionine and 0.4% L-lysine and 0.4% DL-methionine, respectively. Faecal calcium of birds on treatment 7 (2.37%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared with those on T5 (2.16%).  Birds on T7 also had higher (P<0.05)  phosphorus (1.67%)  than those on treatment 1 (1.46%). Tibia phosphorous of birds on control diet was similar (P>0.05) to those on treatments 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 while the birds on T4 recorded significantly lower (P<0.05) tibia phosphorus. At the starter phase, birds on sole amino acid supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5) had lower but similar (P>0.05) sera calcium. At the finisher phase sera Ca and P of birds were similar (P>0.05). Correlation of feed and faecal calcium and phosphorus was positive and highly significant (p<0.01) at the starter phase which were conversely not observed among calcium and phosphorus levels in blood and tibia bone as well as in the serum alkaline phosphatase at the finisher phase. Supplementation of GNC based diets with both L-lysine and DL-methionine at 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively elevated especially the starter chicks sera as well as faecal calcium and phosphorus thereby also implying on bone strength.


Amino acids, Broiler, Bone, Calcium, Chickens, Faecal, Phosphorus, Serum.

Full Text:



AOAC (1990). Official methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D. C, USA.

AOAC (2009). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis (19th Ed.). Washington D. C.

Bawa, G. S., Tegbe, T. S. B., Ogundipe, S. O. and Dafwang, I. I. (2008) Effect of amino acid Supplementation of lablab Seed diet on performance of young pigs. Proceeding of the 33rd Annual Conference of Nigeria Society for Animal Production. pp380-380.

Bonsante, F., Lalobelli, S., Laatoire, G., Rigo, J., Defelice, C., Robilland, P. Y. and Gouyon, J. B. (2013). Initial amino acid intake influences P and Calcium homoestasis in preterm infants- it is time to change the composition of the early prenatal nutrition. PLoS ONE 8(8): 72880

Civitelli, R., Villareal, D. T., Agnusdei, D., Nardi, P., Avioli, L. V. and Gennari, C. (1993). Dietary L-lysine and calcium metabolism in humans. Nutrition. Nov-Dec; 8(6):400-5

Duncan, J. R.., Prasse, K. W. and Mahaffey, E. A. (1994). Veterinary laboratory medicine. Clinical Pathology. Iowa State University Press. USA.

Eyo, A. A. and Olatunde, A. A. (1998). Effect of supplementation of soya bean diet with L and L-methionine on the growth of mudfish C. auguillaris fingerlings. Nigeria. Journal of Biotechnology, 9 (1): 9-16.

Fiske, C. H. and Subbarow, Y. (1925). The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem., 66: 375–400.

Kaslow, J. E. 2011. http//;

Kerstetter, J. E., Mitnick, M. E., Gundberg, C. M., Caseria, D. M., Ellison, A. F., Carpenter, T .O, and Insogna, K. L. (1999). Changes in bone turnover in young women consuming different levels of dietary protein. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 84: 1052–1055.

Kerstetter, J. E., O'Brien, K. O. and Insogna, K. L. (1998). Dietary protein affects intestinal calcium absorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68: 859–865,

Kerstetter, J. E., O'Brien, K. O. and Insogna, K. L. (2003). Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78: 584S–592S,

Pybus, J., Feldman, F. J. and Bowers, G. N. (1970). Measurement of total calcium in serum by atomic absorption spectroscopy, with use of a strontium internal reference. Clin. Chem. 16(12), 998

May, T. D. and Vardaman, J. H. (1972). The influence of temperature and sex on amino acid requirement of the broilers. Poultry Science, 51: 1391-1396.

Mitruka, B .J. and Rawnsley, H. M. (1977) Clinical Biochemical and Haematological Reference values in Normal experimental Animals, 2nd ed. Masson Publishing USA. Inc 1981 Pg 186 – 187

Mukhtar, A. M., Mekkawi, A. and ELTigani, M. 2007. The Effect of Feeding Increasing Levels of Synthetic Lysine and Methionine in Broiler Chicks. Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 2: 18-20.

Okpaniezeali, P. L., Nwankwo, R. I., Akpa, M. O. and Onu, P. N. (2001). The effect of supplemental lysine on the performance of broiler chicks. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria. Pp.27 – 29.

Ogunwole, O. A. Majekodunmi, B. C., Faboyede, R. A. and Ogunsiji, D. 2016. Meat and Bone Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Groundnut Cake-Based Diets as Affected by Graded Dietary Supplements of Crystalline L-Lysine and DL -Methionine. Journal of Advances in Agriculture 16 (1): 846-852

Ogunwole, O. A., Agboola, A. F., Soyinka, O. and Jemiseye, F. O. (2013). Dry matter digestibility and gut histomorphology of broiler chicken fed groundnut cake based–diets supplemented with crystalline L-lysine and DL-methionine. Tropical Animal Production Investigation Volume 16:1-6

Onu, P.N. and Madubuike, F. N. (2006). Effect of raw and cooked wild cocoyam (Caladium bicolor) on the performance of broiler chicks. Agricultura Trop. Et Subtropica, 39: 268-272.

Owen, O. J. and Amakin, A. O. (2012). Assessmentof calcium, phosphorus and enzymes of broiler chickens fed with bitter leaf meal diets. Revista Cientifica uDo Agricola, 12 (1): 207- 211.

Remer, T., Dimitriou, T. and Manz, F. 2003. Dietary potential renal acid load and renal net acid excretion in healthy, free-living children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 77: 1255–1260.

Roughead, Z. K., Johnson, L. K., Lykken, G. I. and Hunt, J. R. (2003). Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women. J Nutr 133: 1020–1026.

SAS (1999). Statistical Analytical Software/STAT User’s Guide (Release 6.03). (1999). Cary: SAS Institute Inc.

Skinner, J. T., Waldroup, A. L. & Waldroup, P. W. (1991). Effects of removal of vitamin and trace mineral supplements from grower and finisher diets on live performance and carcass composition of broilers. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 1:280.

Udedibie, A. B. I. (2003). Effect of cooked pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seed meal on the performance of broiler chickens. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) 25:87

Zwart, S. R., Hargens, A. R. and Smith, S. M. (2004). The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80: 1058–106.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Animal Production Research